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ISO 2859-1 ( standard d’inspection)

Quality Control standard ISO 2859-1 (ANSI/ASQC Z1.4-2003), also known as the AQL Tables to conduct product inspections services.

The standard definition of the AQL (Acceptance Quality Limit) is “the maximum defective percent (or the maximum number of defects per hundred units) that, for purpose of sampling inspection, can be considered satisfactory as a process average”.

The inspector randomlys selects a sampling size quantity ( batch) based on the AQL table and classify the defects into critical, major and minor defects.

Critical defects

Any condition found which poses the possibility of causing injury or harm to, or otherwise endangering the life or safety of, the end user of the product or others in the immediate vicinity of its use.

Major

Any condition found adversely affecting the product’s marketability and sale-ability or adversely affecting its required form, fit, or function, and which is likely to result in the end user returning it to the source from which it was purchased for replacement or refund.

Minor

Any condition found which while possibly less than desirable to the end user of the product, does not adversely affect its required marketability, sale-ability, form, fit, or function and is unlikely to result in its return to the source from which it was purchased.

“The ISO 9000 family of quality management system (QMS) standards is designed to help organizations ensure that they meet the needs of customers and other stakeholders while meeting statutory and regulatory requirements related to a product or program.”

LPI Factory audit protocol are closely designed after the ISO 9000 standards Principles.

More specifically   :

1   Commitment of senior management to monitor, control, and improve quality. Organizations that implement an ISO system without this desire and commitment often take the cheapest road to get a certificate on the wall and ignore problem areas uncovered in the audits.

2  How well the Quality Management Sytem integrates into current business practices. Many organizations that implement ISO try to make their system fit into a cookie-cutter quality manual instead of creating a manual that documents existing practices and only adds new processes to meet the ISO standard when necessary.

3  How well the QMS focuses on improving the customer experience. The broadest definition of quality is “Whatever the customer perceives good quality to be.” This means that a company doesn’t necessarily have to make a product that never fails; some customers will have a higher tolerance for product failures if they always receive shipments on-time or have a positive experience in some other dimension of customer service. An ISO system should take into account all areas of the customer experience and the industry expectations, and seek to improve them on a continual basis. This means taking into account all processes that deal with the three stakeholders (customers, suppliers, and organization); only then will a company be able to sustain improvements in the customer’s experience.

How well the auditor finds and communicates areas of improvement. While auditors may not provide consulting to the clients they audit, there is the potential for auditors to point out areas of improvement. Many auditors simply rely on submitting reports that indicate compliance or non-compliance with the appropriate section of the standard; however, to most executives, this is like speaking a foreign language. Auditors that can clearly identify and communicate areas of improvement in language and terms executive management understands facilitate action on improvement initiatives by the companies they audit. When management doesn’t understand why they were non-compliant and the business implications associated with non-compliance, they simply ignore the reports and focus on what they do understand.

SA8000 is an auditable certification standard that encourages organizations to develop, maintain, and apply socially acceptable practices in the workplace. It was developed in 1997 by Social Accountability International, formerly the Council on Economic Priorities, by an advisory board consisting of trade unions, civil society organizations and companies. It is an extremely useful tool in measuring, comparing, and verifying social accountability in the workplace.

It requires compliance with eight performance criteria :

1   Child Labor: No use or support of child labor; policies and written procedures for remediation of children found to be working in situation; provide adequate financial and other support to enable such children to attend school; and employment of young workers conditional.

Forced and Compulsory Labor: No use or support for forced or compulsory labor; no required ‘deposits’ – financial or otherwise; no withholding salary, benefits, property or documents to force personnel to continue work; personnel right to leave premises after workday; personnel free to terminate their employment; and no use nor support for human trafficking.

Health and Safety: Provide a safe and healthy workplace; prevent potential occupational accidents; appoint senior manager to ensure OSH; instruction on OSH for all personnel; system to detect, avoid, respond to risks; record all accidents; provide personal protection equipment and medical attention in event of work-related injury; remove, reduce risks to new and expectant mothers; hygiene- toilet, potable water, sanitary food storage; decent dormitories- clean, safe, meet basic needs; and worker right to remove from imminent danger.

Freedom of Association and Right to Collective Bargaining: Respect the right to form and join trade unions and bargain collectively.

Discrimination: No discrimination based on race, national or social origin, caste, birth, religion, disability, gender, sexual orientation, union membership, political opinions and age.

Disciplinary Practices: Treat all personnel with dignity and respect; zero tolerance of corporal punishment, mental or physical abuse of personnel; no harsh or inhumane treatment, etc.

Working Hours: Compliance with laws & industry standards; normal workweek, not including overtime, shall not exceed 48 hours; 1 day off following every 6 consecutive work days, with some exceptions; overtime is voluntary, not regular, not more than 12 hours per week; required overtime only if negotiated in CBA.

Remuneration: Respect right of personnel to living wage; all workers paid at least legal minimum wage; wages sufficient to meet basic needs & provide discretionary income, etc.